Polio Update


Polio campaign updates.

Upto date information as at 4 January 2018

Polio is a highly infectious, crippling and potentially fatal viral disease which mainly affects young children. There is no cure, but there are effective vaccines. The strategy to eradicate polio is based on preventing infection by immunising every child until transmission stops and the world is polio-free. The source of polio virus transmission is infectious humans spread mainly through the faecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food) and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis. But, less than 1 in 200 infections leads to this. Of those paralysed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilised.

 Principal polio focus: (Where surveillance and immunisation activities continue)

  had a WPV1 case and two WPV1 positive environmental samples collected.

(For positive samples, the viral environmental presence lasts for 7-14 days.)  In ,

Africa and the there were no polio reports.

 

            2017 TO 2 January 2018          21 WPV1   86 cVDPV2

            2016 TO SAME TIME:               35 WPV1     3 cVDPV

            2016 FULL YEAR:                    37 WPV1     5 cVDPV

 

For polio-free certification purposes the start date for WPV monitoring is that of the onset of paralysis. The most recent WPV1 cases by country with onset of paralysis were:

·       In – 3 December 2017 - or 4 weeks since the onset of polio.

o   12 cases in 2017 vs.12 cases at the same time in 2016.

o   A vaccination campaign is planned for later this month targeting over 5 million children

·       In – 15 November 2017 – or 7 weeks since the onset of polio.

o   8 cases in 2017 vs.19 cases at the same time in 2016.

o   A vaccination campaign is planned for later this month targeting 36 million children.

·       In – 21 August 2016 – or 71 weeks since the onset of polio.

o   No cases in 2017 vs. 4 cases at the same time in 2016.

o   The next round of NIDS is planned for late January.

 

The numbers of cases of cVDPV2 in 2017 and the dates of onset of paralysis are:

·       In the DRC – 17 November 2017 – or 7 weeks since the onset of polio.   

o   12 cases this year

o   Most cases in Haut Lomami province though 2 of the earliest cases were in Maniema province with onset of paralysis on 26 March then 18 April.

o   Outbreak response continues to take place.

·       In – 21 September 2017 – or 15 weeks since the onset of polio.

o   74 cases in 2017 vs. no cases at the same time in 2016.

o   Most of the cases had occurred before the outbreak response started.

o   The 2nd phase of the outbreak response using mOPV2 and IPV through house-to–house and vaccination centre strategies.

 

Other polio types: (Where no activity beyond surveillance is expected.)

1.     WPV2 cases:

·       Declared eradicated September 2015. (Last case was in October 1999.)

2.     WPV3 cases:

·       No cases reported since 10 November 2012. (That was in .)

3.     cVDPV1 cases:

·       No cases in 2017.

·       Three cases reported in in 2016.

·       In 2015 there were ten cases in , eight cases in the and two cases in the .


Other comments (from the internet and other sources):

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is partnering with institutions in seven countries to help document and disseminate knowledge from the polio programme. Reducing polio cases by 99.9% globally is an incredible feat, achieved through innovative strategies and years of trial and error. While the polio eradication programme is focused on getting to zero, now is the time to make sure everything we’ve learned isn’t lost and can be used to inform future global health programmes. Just as the polio eradication effort applied lessons learned from the successful smallpox campaign to its own work, the goal is for future health programmes to understand and build on the knowledge of the polio effort. Under a new grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) will be working to do exactly this.

JHSPH will partner with academic institutions from around the world to document lessons and develop graduate-level courses and hands-on training clinics for public health students and professionals, including an online open course available to the public and implementation courses for managers from other health programmes. Under the leadership of Dr Olakunle Alonge, the team at JHSPH will collaborate with a global team from public health institutions in seven countries: , , , , the DRC, and . This will not only ensure a balanced and diverse perspective, but also enable the exchange of public health training strategies between the institutions. To develop the content of each course, JHSPH will be identifying “change agents” at the local, national and global levels who have expertise in polio eradication that may not otherwise be captured. This unique global strategy promises to yield coursework that speaks to the issues faced by a broad range of global health programmes and actors. “Without an active strategy to map, package and deliver the knowledge from the global polio eradication efforts to other programs and global health actors, I’m afraid that these knowledge assets may not find any useful purpose beyond the end of the polio campaign, which could come to an end within a few years,” said Alonge. Alonge expects to glean lessons that will apply to immunization systems, public health emergency response, primary health care, disease eradication and infectious diseases—ensuring that the polio programme continues to positively impact global health for years to come.

Reg Ling

Rotary Club of 's Ford and .

Rotary District 1110 (Central Southern England and the ).

Rotary Zone 18A (Southern England and ) End Polio Now Zone Coordinator.

 

4 January 2018

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